CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOLOGY PSYC 1215
Study Guide for Ch. 15, 16, 17
Terms, Concepts and Applications
Ch. 15 Physical Development and Health in Adolescence
Puberty – process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce
Puberty beginnings (biological): growth spurt, maturing of reproductive functions and sex organs
Role of gene, leptin, hypothalamus
Timing and sequence of maturation
Table 15-1 (Sequence of pubertal events is fairly consistent but timing is not)
Secular trend: improved health care, better nourishment, higher standard of living
Adolescent growth spurt is earlier for girls
Near-sightedness may be a problem
Between 11-13 girls are taller, heavier and stronger than boys
Growth spurt may be uneven and cause gawkiness
Primary sex characteristics – what are the organs directly related to reproduction?
Secondary sex characteristics – what are the physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not involve the sex organs? - what might be some concerns of boys and girls?
Average age of menarche (American White and Black)
Effect of family relationships on timing of pubertal maturation in girls
What conclusions might be drawn about the psychological effects of early and late maturation?
Physical and mental health
What is the most common high-risk behavior? See Fig. 15-1, p. 413
1/5 of adolescents have at least one serious physical or mental illness
Boys and girls who enter adolescence early are more prone to risky health behaviors
Rates of drinking and drug use are similar across ethnic and social class lines
Sleep needs – when should school start?
What is the most common eating disorder in the US?
Alcohol use changes
Marijuana use, concerns
Most prevalent in US
Why are STD’s so prevalent in adolescent populations?
What is the leading cause of death in adolescence?
Suicide: characteristics of teen and protective factors – Box 5.2
What factors affect teens’ health? (Resnick et al., 1997)
Ch. 16 Cognitive Development in Adolescence
How does Piaget’s stage of formal operations differ from earlier stages? – abstract thinking, hypothetical-deductive reasoning
Shift to formal reasoning influenced by brain maturation and expanding environmental opportunities – give opportunities for classroom peer problem-solving
Social perspective-taking: Adolescents become better at understanding another’s point of view
Elkind’s descriptions of immature thought: idealism and criticalness, argumentativeness, indecisiveness, apparent hypocrisy, self-consciousness – “imaginary audience,” specialness and vulnerability – personal fable”
Characteristic thinking of each of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development : preconventional, conventional, and postconventional
According to Kohlberg, most adolescents and adults are at conventional role conformity
Positive correlates of stage of moral dev.: IQ, education and SES
Factors that influence school achievement: SES, students’ belief in ability to succeed, peer influence
Parenting styles: authoritarian, authoritative, permissive
Research on majority culture children of authoritative parents compared to other parenting styles:
Better academic achievement, fewer behavior problems, more socially competent
Ethnicity, parenting and school achievement: do not have same findings as majority culture
Active engagement – how to keep teens from dropping out
Research contradictions in predicting outcomes of teen work
Ch. 17 Psychosocial Development in Adolescence
Erikson’s identity and role confusion
Male and female differences in development of identity and intimacy
Marcia’s identity status
Foreclosure – commitment without crisis
Identity achievement – crisis leading to commitment
Moratorium – crisis with no commitment
Identity diffusion – no commitment, no crisis
Ethnic factors in identity formation: diffuse, foreclosed, moratorium, achieved
Elkind’s identity: differentiation and integration or substitution (patchwork self)
What percentage of teens unsure of sexual orientation
Peer norms supporting sexual activity is strongest predictor for early sexual activity
Rates of contraceptive use
Teenage pregnancy and childbearing
Decline in rate
Why are unwed mothers and children likely to suffer financial hardship?
What is the myth about parent and teen relationships?
What do parents and teens argue about?
Peer group status
Popular, rejected, controversial, average
In US who has the greatest adjustment problems
Gender differences in friendships
Girls focus more on shared confidences and emotional support
Boys focus more on shared activities
What does the research indicate about the longterm effects of early childhood intervention programs on teens and the law?
Similarities and differences across cultures