Study Guide for Ch.  15, 16, 17

                                                                Terms, Concepts and Applications


Ch.  15      Physical Development and Health in Adolescence

Puberty – process by which a person attains sexual maturity and the ability to reproduce

Puberty beginnings (biological): growth spurt, maturing of reproductive functions and sex organs

Hormonal changes 

            Role of gene, leptin, hypothalamus

Timing and sequence of maturation

Table 15-1 (Sequence of pubertal events is fairly consistent but timing is not)

Secular trend:  improved health care, better nourishment, higher standard of living

Adolescent growth spurt is earlier for girls

Near-sightedness may be a problem      

Between 11-13 girls are taller, heavier and stronger than boys

Growth spurt may be uneven and cause gawkiness

Primary sex characteristics – what are the organs directly related to reproduction?

Secondary sex characteristics –  what are the physiological signs of sexual maturation that do not involve the sex organs?  - what might be some concerns of boys and girls?

Average age of menarche (American White and Black)

            Effect of family relationships on timing of pubertal maturation in girls

What conclusions might be drawn about the psychological effects of early and late maturation?

Physical and mental health

What is the most common high-risk behavior?  See Fig. 15-1, p. 413

            1/5 of adolescents have at least one serious physical or mental illness

            Boys and girls who enter adolescence early are more prone to risky health behaviors

            Rates of drinking and drug use are similar across ethnic and social class lines

Sleep needs – when should school start?

What is the most common eating disorder in the US?

Alcohol use changes

Marijuana use, concerns


            Most prevalent in US

            Why are STD’s so prevalent in adolescent populations?

What is the leading cause of death in adolescence?

Suicide:  characteristics of teen and protective factors – Box 5.2

What factors affect teens’ health? (Resnick et al., 1997)


Ch. 16      Cognitive Development in Adolescence

How does Piaget’s stage of formal operations differ from earlier stages? – abstract thinking, hypothetical-deductive reasoning

Shift to formal reasoning influenced by brain maturation and expanding environmental opportunities – give opportunities for classroom peer problem-solving

Language development

Social perspective-taking: Adolescents become better at understanding another’s point of view                                                                 

Elkind’s descriptions of immature thought: idealism and criticalness, argumentativeness, indecisiveness, apparent hypocrisy, self-consciousness – “imaginary audience,” specialness and vulnerability – personal fable”

Characteristic thinking of each of Kohlberg’s stages of moral development : preconventional, conventional, and postconventional

            According to Kohlberg, most adolescents and adults are at conventional role conformity

            Positive correlates of stage of moral dev.: IQ, education and SES

            Cross-cultural studies

Factors that influence school achievement: SES, students’ belief in ability to succeed, peer influence

Parenting styles:  authoritarian, authoritative, permissive

Research on majority culture children of authoritative parents compared to other parenting styles:

            Better academic achievement, fewer behavior problems, more socially competent

Ethnicity, parenting and school achievement: do not have same findings as majority culture

Active engagement – how to keep teens from dropping out


Research contradictions in predicting outcomes of teen work


Ch.  17       Psychosocial Development in Adolescence

Erikson’s identity and role confusion

            Male and female differences in development of identity and intimacy

Marcia’s identity status

            Foreclosure – commitment without crisis

            Identity achievement – crisis leading to commitment

            Moratorium – crisis with no commitment

Identity diffusion – no commitment, no crisis

Ethnic factors in identity formation: diffuse, foreclosed, moratorium, achieved

Elkind’s identity: differentiation and integration or substitution (patchwork self)


What percentage of teens unsure of sexual orientation

Peer norms supporting sexual activity is strongest predictor for early sexual activity

Rates of contraceptive use

Teenage pregnancy and childbearing

Decline in rate

Why are unwed mothers and children likely to suffer financial hardship?  

What is the myth about parent and teen relationships?

What do parents and teens argue about?

Peer group status

            Popular, rejected, controversial, average

            In US who has the greatest adjustment problems

Gender differences in friendships           

            Girls focus more on shared confidences and emotional support

            Boys focus more on shared activities

What does the research indicate about the longterm effects of early childhood intervention programs on teens and the law?

Emerging adulthood

            Similarities and differences across cultures